The last month of Malayam Calendar Karkkidakam corresponds the month when the South west monsoon is active. This month is also considered to be bad time as in olden days rains used to bring diseases and damages to lives and property. Karkkidakam is generally known as the Panja Masam, the month of famine, because of the lack of work during the peak of monsoon.
Scripture from Ramayana will be recited till the end of the month and people will abstain from entering into any new ventures or holding auspicious functions during this month. Hence it is also called Ramayanamasam. The agricultural activities of Kerala are centred around the seasons. The Southwest monsoon which starts around June 1 is known as Edavappathi, meaning mid- Edavam.
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The North east monsoon which starts during mid October is called thulavarsham rain in the month of thulam. The two harvests of paddy are called Kannikkoythu and Makarakkoythu harvest in the month kanni and makaram respectively. The Makaravilakku festival is celebrated in the Ayyappa Temple at Sabarimala on the 1st day of month Makaram.
Thus Cingam from Simham or Lion is named after the constellation Leo and so on. The city, also a major coastal town, a significant industrial and commercial trading center. Kollam has been described in history as one of the finest Cities in Malabar. The days of the year are divided into groups of fourteen days called Nhattuvela , each one bearing the name of a star. The ecliptic is divided into 27 nakshatras, which are variously called lunar houses or asterisms.
The zodiac comprises of degrees. Therefore, the value of each constellation is 13 degrees and 20 minutes when measured from the fixed initial point. These 27 Nakshatras stars complete the entire circle of degrees of the zodiac.
These reflect the moon's cycle against the fixed stars, 27 days ,7 hours and 45 minutes. Nakshatra computation appears to have been well known at the time of the Rig Veda. The starting point for this division is the point on the ecliptic directly opposite to the star Spica called Chithra in Sanskrit.
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Other slightly-different definitions exist. It is called Meshaadi or the "start of Aries". The ecliptic is divided into the nakshatras eastwards starting from this point. Note that nakshatra-s are in this context not just single stars but are segments on the ecliptic characterised by one or more stars.
Hence you will find many stars mentioned for one nakshatra. An additional 28th intercalary nakshatra, Abhijit alpha, epsilon and zeta Lyrae - Vega - between Uttarasharha and Sravana , is in between Uttarashada and Sravana.
Last two third and fourth Padas of Uttrashada and first two first and second Padas of Sravana are considered to be Abhijith. The nakshatra in which the moon lies at the time of sunrise of a day is the nakshatra for the day. This is divided into 30 parts. The time spent by the moon in each of these parts is called one tithi. The month has two pakshas or fortnights.
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The first 15 tithis constitute the bright fortnight or shukla paksha - the waxing phase and the next 15 tithi-s constitute the dark fortnight or krishna paksha - the waning phase. Tithi-s are indicated by their paksha and ordinal number within the paksha. In a given lunar month, there are essentially 30 tithis. The 15th tithi of the bright fortnight full moon is called Paurnami or Poornima and the 15th tithi of the dark fortnight new moon is called Amavasi. The tithi in which the moon is at the time of sunrise of a day is taken to be the tithi for the day.
Njattuvela means Njayarinte Nila or position of sun. In Thiruvathira Njattuvela rain will come down without a break. Now its our turn t o have a reformation. Have A Great Independence Day. Proud to be an Indian. The day commemorate political independence from of the nation from the British rule on 15th August and that independence is celebrated every year, although in a much more subdued form than on Republic Day. Independence Day, observed annually on 15 August, is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from British rule on 15 August India attained freedom following an independence movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress INC.
Apart from songs in praise of snakes, specific offerings are given to the snake deities. It was practised all over Kerala in olden times. The ritual is known as sarpakkalam and pampinthullal. Velakali: Velakali, a dance evolved from the martial culture, is performed in some temples as a spectacle during festivals in which the whole village participates.
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Most of these Rajas were great patrons of art and learning. One Devanarayana who lived in the 18th century had encouraged many poets and artists in his royal court. Several wars were fought in the sea with these powers by the raja and his predecessors. Velakali was conceived as a reminiscence of these armed conflicts, a re-enactment of those wars waged in the sea and land.
The dance form assumed the shape of an earlier art called Naikkan Tullal. The subject-matter and technique of the Velakali point back to a period in the history of the Kerala region when the conjoint military discipline and folk relaxation came under the growing influences of the culture that had established itself in North India, and proceeded southwards, carrying with it the philosophical ideas and religious conceptions and observances, of the ancestral Aryan seers; carrying also what is more apposite to the subject, the imaginative embodiments of deific powers and processes in the Puranas, whose stories became the inexhaustible source of the arts of Hindu India, and have remained so to this day.
This spectacular martial dance is performed by men in some of the temples of southern Kerala. The dancers, clad in the traditional clothes and colourful headgear engage in vigorous movements and dexterous sword play, to the accompaniment of an orchestra comprising the maddalam, elathalam, kombu and kuzhal. Velakali originated in Ambalappuzha. The dance form is a regular feature of the annual festivities at the Ambalappuzha Sree Krishna temple in Alappuzha district.
Patayani: Patayani is a ritualistic dance, which literally means an array of common people. Patayani involves many powerful themes of esoteric appeal. The whole village activity corporate in this popular art. The masks are painted with a grotesque surrealistic touch. The round eyes and the triangular ears and abnormal size of the head gear give a touch of super human dimension. Patayani is a ritual art form of Kottayam Kadammanitta, Othera, Chengannur are some of the places, where patayani is still existing. Padayani starts as a procession which is comprised of various kolam, musical accompaniments, indigenous torches etc, from a place distant from the Devi temple.
Small groups of people join it and the procession becomes a huge one when it reaches the temple premises. Kappoli, pulavrittam and thavadi are some of the important rituals in padayani. Tappu is the The performers also use chenda and elathalam. The musicians sing and the kolams dance. This is a folk theatre form in which audience participation takes place widely during the performance.
നിങ്ങളുടെ ജാതകം സൗജന്യമായി
Folk Arts and Songs There is a very rich folk song tradition in Kerala. Farmers, peasants, ploughing or harvesting and the boat men plying the oars on the palm-fringed back waters forget the tedium of toil by singing songs. Then the happiness of the harvest season, of the sacramental union of man and woman, of the advent of progeny also found expression in beautiful melodies.
Many classical composers also used folk songs. Irayimman Tampy, wrote a lyric for the melody of the traditional lullaby which is one of the most beautiful songs of this kind in Malayalam. Another lullaby melody was chosen by Cherusseri in the fifteenth century to retell the Krishna story from the Bhagavatha in mellifluous verse in a Kavya of classical dimensions with forty seven cantos.
Ayyappanpattu Sasthampattu : This is staged by devotees of Lord Ayyappa, all over Kerala in general, and in Kottayam District particularly. All age groups and occupation groups could participate in this. The period of origin cannot be fixed. In these Pattu song the story of Pandalam Raja and his family, before the birth of Sastha, is incorporated.
A troup is made up of at least five persons. There is a rule which lays down that only after prayers to Ganapathy and Saraswathy, in their praise, should songs about other gods of the pantheon be sung.